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Citing Sources: Welcome!

Help for creating citations and reference lists.

Citing Sources

Every good researcher understands the value and importance in not only citing sources correctly, but also having a complete and correct reference page. This page is designed to direct you to resources and help available for help with formatting citations, papers and references.  Whether you need to use MLA, APA or even AMA style, we have something to help you.

References are given using APA 6th edition.

In Text Citation

Indirect Quotes or References to Material

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference. All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

Example: (Black, 2014)

Direct Quotes

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses..

Example: According to Peshori (2015), "In India it was the Kautilya who was the first economist who openly recognized the need of the forensic accountants" (p. 28).

Reference List

Books

One author

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Black, B. P. (2014). Professional nursing: Concepts & challenges. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

More than one author

Two authors: List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand instead of "and."

Held, J.S. & Posner, D. (1971). 17th and 18th century art: Baroque, painting, sculpture, architecture. New York, NY: H.N. Abrams.

Three to seven authors: List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand.

Kotler, P., Hessekiel, D., & Lee, N. R. (2012). Good works!: Marketing and corporate initiatives that build a better world--and the bottom line. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Eight or more authorsList by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author's name, use an ellipses in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names.

Smith, B. G., Harrison, F., Hunter, D. T., Goodman, K. T., Williams, T. P., McGillis, A., . . . Cleary, B.

Edited works

Author, A. A., (Ed.) (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Lane, E., & Shengold, N., (Eds.). (1988). The actor's book of scenes from new plays. New York, NY: Penguin Books.

Chapter or article from a book

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

Kuh, G. D., Boruff-Jones, P. D., & Mark, A. E.(2007). Engaging students in the first college year: Why academic librarians matter. In L.L. Hardesty (Ed.), The role of the library in the first college year (pp. 17-28). Columbia: SC: University of South Carolina.

Journal Articles

One author

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article.Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy 

Peshori, K. S. (2015). Forensic accounting a multidimensional approach to investigating frauds and scams. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach & Studies, 2(3), 26-36. 

More than one author

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article.Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy

Chen, W., Wu, F., You, Z., Zhang, Z., Guo, Y., & Zhong, L. (2015). Analyzing the differentially expressed genes and pathway cross-talk in aggressive breast cancer. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology Research, 41(1), 132-140. http://10.1111/jog.12495

Other Types of Sources

Websites

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address

DeNoon, D. J. (2012). How much caffeine is in your energy drink? Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/news/20121025/how-much-caffeine-energy-drink#1.

Videos (includes DVDs, VHS, Digital formats)

Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.

Grazer, B. (Producer), & Howard, R. (Director). (2001). A beautiful mind [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.

Interviews or Personal Communication

Non-recoverable

Personal communications may be private letters, memos, emails, personal interviews, and telephone conversations. According to APA, because they are not considered recoverable data, they are not included in the reference list and should be cited in the reference list. 

For your in-text citation include their name, the type of communication and as accurate a date as possible. The other person's name will be listed in the same format used for authors in a reference.

(A. A. LastName, personal communication, Date of communication)

(J. A. Parker, personal communication, October 28, 2018)

Interview or Personal Communication

Recording or Transcript Available

If you have an audio file or written transcript of the personal communication, it should be cited in text and in your reference list. If you do not have all of the information, complete as much as possible.

Audio file:

LastName, A. A. (Date). Interview by B. B. LastName [format of recording]. Title of interview, Place where recording available, Place of Publication.

Jones, B. L. (2016, June 11). Interview by J. K. Lotz [mp3 file]. Library Services at Newman University, Copy in possession of author.

Written transcript (no audio available):

LastName, A. A. (Date) Title of interview with interviewer name/Interviewer: FirstName A. LastName. Occassion of recording, Publisher, Place of Publication.

Jones, B. L. (2016). Library services at Newman University 1933-2006 with Bob L. Jones/Interviewer: Jim K. Lotz. Newman Archives Project, Newman University, Wichita, KS.

 

References are given using MLA 8th edition.

In Text Citation

MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence.

Example:  (Black 47)

Works Cited

Books

One author

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date.

Black, Beth Perry. Professional Nursing: Concepts & Challenges. Elsevier, 2014.

More than one author

Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date. (2 authors)

Held, Julius S. and Donald Posner. 17th and 18th Century Art: Baroque, Painting, Sculpture, Architecture. H.N. Abrams, 1971.

Last Name, First Name, et. al. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date. (3 or more authors)

Kotler, Philip, et al. Good Works!: Marketing and Corporate Initiatives that Build a Better World--and the Bottom Line. Wiley, 2012.

Edited book

Last Name, First Name, editor. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date. (for multiple editors use the same format for multiple authors with 'editors')

Lane, Eric, and Nina Shengold, editors. The Actor's Book of Scenes From New Plays. Penguin Books, 1988.

Chapter or article from a book

Last name, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection, edited by Editor's Name(s), Publisher, Year, Page range of entry.

Kuh, George D., et al. "Engaging Students in the First College Year: Why Academic Librarians Matter." The Role of the Library in the First College Year, edited by Larry L. Hardesty, University of South Carolina, 2007, 17-28.
 

Journal Articles

One author

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, pages.

Peshori, Kishore S. "Forensic Accounting a Multidimensional Approach to Investigating Frauds and Scams." International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach & Studies, vol. 2, no. 3, 2015, 26-36.

More than one author

The format for multiple authors is the same for articles and books. List the first author, last name, first name, the second author, first name last name.  For three or more authors, List the first author, last name, first name, et al.

Chen, Wen-Yan, et.al. "Analyzing the differentially expressed genes and pathway cross-talk in aggressive breast cancer." Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology Research, vol. 41, no. 1, 2015, 132-140.

Other Types of Sources

Websites

Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number, Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).

DeNoon, Daniel J. WebMD. 25 Oct., 2012, www.webmd.com/food-recipes/news/20121025/how-much-caffeine-energy-drink#1. Accessed 12 Aug., 2016.

Videos (includes DVDs, VHS, Digital formats)

List films by their title. Include the name of the director, the film studio or distributor, and the release year.

Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Directed by George Lucas, Twentieth Century Fox, 1977.

 

References are given using Turabian Style 8th edition.

Citations & Bibliography

Books

Parenthetical Citations References
One author

(Author's Last Name Date of Publication, xx-xx)

Black 2014, 122.

Lastname, Firstname. Date of publication. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Black, Beth. 2014. Professional Nursing: Concepts & Challenges. St. Louis: Elsevier.

More than one author

2-3 Authors:

(Author #1's Lastname, Author #2's Lastname, and Author #3's Lastname Date  of publication, xx-xx)

(Held and Posner 1971, 22)

4 or more Authors: Include only the first name in the citation follwed by et al..

(Author #1's Lastname et al. Date  of publication, xx-xx)

(Held et al. 1971, 22)

2-3 Authors:

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. Date of publication. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Held, Julius, and Donald Posner. 1971. 17th and 18th Century Art: Baroque, Painting, Sculpture, Architecture. New York: H.N. Abrams.

4 or more Authors: Include all names in the bibliography, except if 8 or more authors, list first seven followed by et al. Only the first author will be listed with first and last names; remaining authors should be listed by initials

Edited works

(Editor's Last Name Date of Publication, xx-xx)

(Lane and Shengold 1988, 37)

Lastname, A.A. and A. Lastname, eds. Date of Publication. Title of Work. Location: Publisher.

Lane, E., and N. Shengold, eds. 1988. The Actor's Book of Scenes From New Plays. New York: Penguin Books.

Chapter or article from a book

(Chapter Author's Lastname Date of Publication, xx-xx)

(Kuh, Boruff-Jones, and Mark 2007, 21)

Lastname, Firstname, Firstname Lastname and Firstname Lastname. Date of Publication. Title of Chapter or Article. In Title of Book, ed. Firstname Lastname, page # range. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Kuh, George D., Polly D. Boruff-Jones and Amy E. Mark. 2007.  Engaging Students in the First College Year: Why Academic Librarians Matter. In The Role of the Library in the First College Year, ed. Larry Hardesty, 17-28. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina.

Journal Articles

One author

(Author's Lastname Date of Publication, xx-xx)

(Peshori 2015, 29)

Lastname, Firstname. Date of Publication. "Title of the Article." Title of Journal volume, no. # (Year): pages.

Peshori, Kishore S. 2015. "Forensic Accounting a Multidimensional Approach to Investigating Frauds and Scams." International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach & Studies 2, no. 3 July: 26-36. 

More than one author

The pattern for multiple authors will follow the same format as for books listing multiple authors.

 

Other Types of Sources

Websites

(Author's Lastname Date of Publication, xx-xx)

(DeNoon 2012)

If a date is not included, indicate: n.d.

If no page numbers are listed leave that piece of information off the citation.

Lastname, Firstname. Date of Pulication. Title of Web Page. Publisher of Webpage. URL, (date accessed).

DeNoon, Daniel J. 2012. How Much Caffeine Is in Your Energy Drink? WebMD. http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/news/20121025/how-much-caffeine-energy-drink#1 (accessed August 22, 2016).

Videos (includes DVDs, VHS, Digital formats)

(Author's Lastname Date of Publication)

(Howard 2001)

You may or may not have every piece included in the sample for your note or citation.

Lastname, Firstname.  Original Release Year. Title of Work. Format. Directed/Performed by Firstname Lastname. City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year. 

A beautiful mind. DVD. Directed by Ron Howard. 2001. Universal Pictures, 2001.

You may or may not have every piece included in the sample for your note or citation.

Paintings, sculptures, photographs, etc.

(Artist's Lastname Date of creation)

(Matisse 1937-38)

If the date(s) is unknown and approximate it should start with ca.

(Matisse ca. 1938)

Reference to the specific art work should appear in the text of your paper.

Lastname, Firstname of Artist. Title of Artwork, Date of creation, Name of institution that houses artwork, including location.

If relevant, include medium of artwork.

For images consulted online, include an access date and a URL.

Matisse, Henri. Two Dancers, 1937-38, gouache on paper, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris, accessed January 19, 2017m https://www.moma.org/slideshows/29?locale=en.

 

References are given using Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition.

Some General Reminders for formatting:

  • Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper.
  • In the text, note numbers are superscripted.
  • Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after any and all punctuation.
  • In the notes themselves, note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable).
  • The first line of a footnote is indented .5” from the left margin.
  • Subsequent lines within a footnote should be formatted flush left.
  • Leave an extra line space between footnotes.
  • Place commentary after documentation when a footnote contains both, separated by a period.
    • In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.
    • Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range. 

Footnotes & Bibliography

Books

Footnote Bibliography
One author

     1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Book (Place of  publication: Publisher, Year  of publication), page number.

     1. Beth Black. Professional Nursing: Concepts & Challenges (St. Louis: Elsevier, 2014), 122.

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Black, Beth. Professional Nursing: Concepts & Challenges. St. Louis: Elsevier, 2014.

More than one author

2-3 Authors:

     1. Firstname Lastname and Firstname Lastname, Title of Book (Place of  publication: Publisher, Year  of publication), page number.

     1. Julius Held and Donald Posner, 17th and 18th Century Art: Baroque, Painting, Sculpture, Architecture (New York: H.N. Abrams, 1971), 22.

4 or more Authors: Include only the first name in the notes.

2-3 Authors:

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Held, Julius, and Donald Posner. 17th and 18th Century Art: Baroque, Painting, Sculpture, Architecture. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1971.

4 or more Authors: Include all names in the bibliography, except if 8 or more authors, list first seven followed by et al. Only the first author will be listed with first and last names; remaining authors should be listed by initials

Edited works

     1. A.A. Lastname, and A.A. Lastname, eds. Title of Work (Location: Publisher, Year), page #.

     1. E. Lane, and N. Shengold, eds. The Actor's Book of Scenes From New Plays (New York: Penguin Books, 1988), 37.

Lastname, A.A. and A. Lastname, eds. Title of Work. Location: Publisher, Year.

Lane, E., and N. Shengold, eds. The Actor's Book of Scenes From New Plays. New York: Penguin Books, 1988, 37.

Chapter or article from a book

     1. Firstname Lastname, and A.A. Lastname, "Title of Chapter or Article," in Title of Book, ed. Firstname Lastname (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page #.

     1. George D.,Kuh, P.D. Boruff-Jones, and A.E. Mark. "Engaging Students in the First College Year: Why Academic Librarians Matter." in The Role of the Library in the First College Year, ed. Larry Hardesty (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, 2007), 21.

Lastname, Firstname, Firstname Lastname and Firstname Lastname. "Title of Chapter or Article." In Title of Book, edited by Firstname Lastname, page # range. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Kuh, George D., Polly D. Boruff-Jones and AmyE. Mark.  "Engaging Students in the First College Year: Why Academic Librarians Matter." In The Role of the Library in the First College Year, edited by Larry Hardesty, 17-28. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, 2007.

Journal Articles

One author

     1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of the Article,” Title of Journal volume, no. # (Year) : page #.

     1. Kishore S. Peshori, "Forensic Accounting a Multidimensional Approach to Investigating Frauds and Scams," International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach & Studies 2, no. 3 (2015) : 29. 

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of the Article.” Title of Journal volume, no. # (Year) : pages.

Kishore S. Peshori, "Forensic Accounting a Multidimensional Approach to Investigating Frauds and Scams," International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach & Studies 2, no. 3 (2015) 26-36. 

More than one author

The pattern for multiple authors will follow the same format as for books listing multiple authors.

 

Other Types of Sources

Websites

     1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics, publication date and/or access date if available, URL.

     1. Daniel J. DeNoon, "How Much Caffeine Is in Your Energy Drink?," WebMD, October 25, 2012, http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/news/20121025/how-much-caffeine-energy-drink#1.

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Web Page.” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics. Publication date and/or access date if available. URL.

DeNoon, Daniel J. "How Much Caffeine Is in Your Energy Drink?," WebMDOctober 25, 2012. http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/news/20121025/how-much-caffeine-energy-drink#1.

Videos (includes DVDs, VHS, Digital formats)

     1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Work, Format, directed/performed by Firstname Lastname (Original release year; City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year.), Medium.

     1. A beautiful mind, directed by Ron Howard (2001; Universal Pictures, 2001.), DVD.

You may or may not have every piece included in the sample for your note or citation.

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Work. Format. Directed/Performed by Firstname Lastname. Original Release Year. City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year. Medium.

A beautiful mind. Directed by Ron Howard. 2001. Universal Pictures, 2001. DVD.

You may or may not have every piece included in the sample for your note or citation.

 

Academic Resource Center

The Runway Learning Center offers free tutoring services to Newman students seeking help with their studies. Tutors for a wide variety of subjects are available. Peer tutors are Newman students who are currently taking courses, so they have an immediate understanding of the material.

You can schedule a meeting with a peer tutor online. If it's your first time, you will need register for an account.

Email a paper to have it marked for spelling, grammar, word flow, etc. and begin your tutoring conversation: writingcoach@newmanu.edu

Avoiding Plagiarism

Not sure if it's plagiarism?  Watch this introductory video.  Questions? Please contact a librarian!