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College Writing 1--Dietrich

Strategies & tips for locating resources for your research project

Sample MLA References

References are given using MLA 8th edition.

In Text Citation

MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence.

Example:  (Black 47)

Works Cited

Books

One author

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date.

Black, Beth Perry. Professional Nursing: Concepts & Challenges. Elsevier, 2014.

More than one author

Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date. (2 authors)

Held, Julius S. and Donald Posner. 17th and 18th Century Art: Baroque, Painting, Sculpture, Architecture. H.N. Abrams, 1971.

Last Name, First Name, et. al. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date. (3 or more authors)

Kotler, Philip, et al. Good Works!: Marketing and Corporate Initiatives that Build a Better World--and the Bottom Line. Wiley, 2012.

Edited book

Last Name, First Name, editor. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date. (for multiple editors use the same format for multiple authors with 'editors')

Lane, Eric, and Nina Shengold, editors. The Actor's Book of Scenes From New Plays. Penguin Books, 1988.

Chapter or article from a book

Last name, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection, edited by Editor's Name(s), Publisher, Year, Page range of entry.

Kuh, George D., et al. "Engaging Students in the First College Year: Why Academic Librarians Matter." The Role of the Library in the First College Year, edited by Larry L. Hardesty, University of South Carolina, 2007, 17-28.
 

Journal Articles

One author

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, pages.

Peshori, Kishore S. "Forensic Accounting a Multidimensional Approach to Investigating Frauds and Scams." International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach & Studies, vol. 2, no. 3, 2015, 26-36.

More than one author

The format for multiple authors is the same for articles and books. List the first author, last name, first name, the second author, first name last name.  For three or more authors, List the first author, last name, first name, et al.

Chen, Wen-Yan, et.al. "Analyzing the differentially expressed genes and pathway cross-talk in aggressive breast cancer." Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology Research, vol. 41, no. 1, 2015, 132-140.

Other Types of Sources

Websites

Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number, Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).

DeNoon, Daniel J. WebMD. 25 Oct., 2012, www.webmd.com/food-recipes/news/20121025/how-much-caffeine-energy-drink#1. Accessed 12 Aug., 2016.

Videos (includes DVDs, VHS, Digital formats)

List films by their title. Include the name of the director, the film studio or distributor, and the release year.

Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Directed by George Lucas, Twentieth Century Fox, 1977.

 

Sample APA References 7th Edition

References are given using APA 7th edition.

This table is meant to be a general guide to formatting your reference list and citations. For more complete help we recommend using the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition.

In Text Citations

Indirect Quotes or References to Material

  • When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
  • Every source cited in the text should appear on your reference list and every item on your reference list should be cited in your paper.
  • If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference. All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
    • Example: (Black, 2014)

Direct Quotes

  • If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses..
    • Example: According to Peshori (2015), "In India it was the Kautilya who was the first economist who openly recognized the need of the forensic accountants" (p. 28). 
    • OR: (Peshori, 2015, p. 28)

Narrative Citations

  • If you are including the citation as part of the narrative of your paper, you don't have to put an additional citation at the end of your sentence. 
    • Example: Smith (2018) found...,

Reference List

Books

Book references no longer require the publisher location as part of the citation. You need only list the publisher.

One author

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher.

Black, B. P. (2014). Professional nursing: Concepts & challenges. Elsevier.

More than one author

Two authors: List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand instead of "and."

Held, J.S. & Posner, D. (1971). 17th and 18th century art: Baroque, painting, sculpture, architecture.H.N. Abrams.

Three to seven authors: List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand.

Kotler, P., Hessekiel, D., & Lee, N. R. (2012). Good works!: Marketing and corporate initiatives that build a better world--and the bottom line. Wiley.

Eight or more authorsList by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author's name, use an ellipses in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names.

Smith, B. G., Harrison, F., Hunter, D. T., Goodman, K. T., Williams, T. P., McGillis, A., . . . Cleary, B.

Edited works

Author, A. A., (Ed.) (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher.

Lane, E., & Shengold, N., (Eds.). (1988). The actor's book of scenes from new plays. Penguin Books.

Chapter or article from a book

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Publisher.

Kuh, G. D., Boruff-Jones, P. D., & Mark, A. E.(2007). Engaging students in the first college year: Why academic librarians matter. In L.L. Hardesty (Ed.), The role of the library in the first college year (pp. 17-28). University of South Carolina.

eBooks

especially those from our research databases

Author. A. A., (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher. https://doi.org/10.xxx

Note: a DOI is not always available. If there is no DOI the citation will look like a print book record.

Bürkle, T., Lehmann, M., Denecke, K., Sariyar, M., Bignens, S., Zetz, E., & Holm, J. (2019). Healthcare of the Future : Bridging the Information Gap. IOS Press.

Colgrove, K. C., & Doherty, C. (2019). Pharmacology Success: Vol. Third edition. F.A. Davis.

Crosby, J. (2014). The Personalism of John Henry Newman. Catholic University of America Press.

Journal Articles

  • When journal or periodical information is missing (such as volume/issue number or page range) omit it from the reference.
  • The basic format for a periodical work follows this format:
  • Author. Date. Title of article. Source (including volume, issue, page range). DOI or URL.
One author

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article.Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), page range. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy 

Peshori, K. S. (2015). Forensic accounting a multidimensional approach to investigating frauds and scams. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach & Studies, 2(3), 26-36. 

More than one author

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article.Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy

Chen, W., Wu, F., You, Z., Zhang, Z., Guo, Y., & Zhong, L. (2015). Analyzing the differentially expressed genes and pathway cross-talk in aggressive breast cancer. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology Research, 41(1), 132-140. http://10.1111/jog.12495

Other Types of Sources

UpToDate Articles

Author, A. A. (Date of last update). Title of article. UpToDate. Retrieved MM DD, YYYY, from https://uptodate.com/contents/xxx

Simon, G. (2019). Effect of antidepressants on suicide risk in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved Sept. 9, 2020 from https://www-uptodate-com.library.newmanu.edu/contents/effect-of-antidepressants-on-suicide-risk-in-adults.

Websites

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address

DeNoon, D. J. (2012). How much caffeine is in your energy drink? Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/news/20121025/how-much-caffeine-energy-drink#1.

Movies and TV Shows

For films, the director should be listed as the author.

Director, D. D. (Director). (Year of publication). Title of motion picture [film]. Studio.

Howard, R. (Director). (2001). A beautiful mind [film].Universal Pictures.

For TV series, the executive producer should be listed as the author(s). For a TV episode, the writer(s) and director(s) of the episode are listed as authors. 

Writer, W. W. (Writer) & Director D. D. (Year of Publication). Title of episode (Season #, Episode #) [TV series episode]. In E. Producer1, & E. Producer2 (Executive Producers), Title of show. Studios.

Interviews or Personal Communication

Non-recoverable

Personal communications may be private letters, memos, emails, personal interviews, and telephone conversations. According to APA, because they are not considered recoverable data, they are not included in the reference list and should be cited in the reference list. 

For your in-text citation include their name, the type of communication and as accurate a date as possible. The other person's name will be listed in the same format used for authors in a reference.

(A. A. LastName, personal communication, Date of communication)

(J. A. Parker, personal communication, October 28, 2018)

TED Talk

For TED Talks you will list the presenter as the author:

Speaker, S. S. (Year, Month). Title of TED Talk [Video]. TED Conferences. URL from https://www.ted.com/xxxx

OR if viewed from YouTube:

TED. (Year, Month Day). Title [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube...xxx

TED. (2011, May 2). Eli Pariser: Beware online "filter bubbles" [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/B8ofWFx525s

Interview or Personal Communication

Recording or Transcript Available

If you have an audio file or written transcript of the personal communication, it should be cited in text and in your reference list. If you do not have all of the information, complete as much as possible.

Audio file:

LastName, A. A. (Date). Interview by B. B. LastName [format of recording]. Title of interview, Place where recording available, Place of Publication.

Jones, B. L. (2016, June 11). Interview by J. K. Lotz [mp3 file]. Library Services at Newman University, Copy in possession of author.

Written transcript (no audio available):

LastName, A. A. (Date) Title of interview with interviewer name/Interviewer: FirstName A. LastName. Occassion of recording, Publisher, Place of Publication.

Jones, B. L. (2016). Library services at Newman University 1933-2006 with Bob L. Jones/Interviewer: Jim K. Lotz. Newman Archives Project, Newman University, Wichita, KS.