Skip to main content

Research & Writing

Guide to research Research & Writing for students for Professor Heck

Sample Turabian References

References are given using Turabian Style 8th edition.

Citations & Bibliography


Parenthetical Citations References
One author

(Author's Last Name Date of Publication, xx-xx)

Black 2014, 122.

Lastname, Firstname. Date of publication. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Black, Beth. 2014. Professional Nursing: Concepts & Challenges. St. Louis: Elsevier.

More than one author

2-3 Authors:

(Author #1's Lastname, Author #2's Lastname, and Author #3's Lastname Date  of publication, xx-xx)

(Held and Posner 1971, 22)

4 or more Authors: Include only the first name in the citation follwed by et al..

(Author #1's Lastname et al. Date  of publication, xx-xx)

(Held et al. 1971, 22)

2-3 Authors:

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. Date of publication. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Held, Julius, and Donald Posner. 1971. 17th and 18th Century Art: Baroque, Painting, Sculpture, Architecture. New York: H.N. Abrams.

4 or more Authors: Include all names in the bibliography, except if 8 or more authors, list first seven followed by et al. Only the first author will be listed with first and last names; remaining authors should be listed by initials

Edited works

(Editor's Last Name Date of Publication, xx-xx)

(Lane and Shengold 1988, 37)

Lastname, A.A. and A. Lastname, eds. Date of Publication. Title of Work. Location: Publisher.

Lane, E., and N. Shengold, eds. 1988. The Actor's Book of Scenes From New Plays. New York: Penguin Books.

Chapter or article from a book

(Chapter Author's Lastname Date of Publication, xx-xx)

(Kuh, Boruff-Jones, and Mark 2007, 21)

Lastname, Firstname, Firstname Lastname and Firstname Lastname. Date of Publication. Title of Chapter or Article. In Title of Book, ed. Firstname Lastname, page # range. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Kuh, George D., Polly D. Boruff-Jones and Amy E. Mark. 2007.  Engaging Students in the First College Year: Why Academic Librarians Matter. In The Role of the Library in the First College Year, ed. Larry Hardesty, 17-28. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina.

Journal Articles

One author

(Author's Lastname Date of Publication, xx-xx)

(Peshori 2015, 29)

Lastname, Firstname. Date of Publication. "Title of the Article." Title of Journal volume, no. # (Year): pages.

Peshori, Kishore S. 2015. "Forensic Accounting a Multidimensional Approach to Investigating Frauds and Scams." International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach & Studies 2, no. 3 July: 26-36. 

More than one author

The pattern for multiple authors will follow the same format as for books listing multiple authors.


Other Types of Sources


(Author's Lastname Date of Publication, xx-xx)

(DeNoon 2012)

If a date is not included, indicate: n.d.

If no page numbers are listed leave that piece of information off the citation.

Lastname, Firstname. Date of Pulication. Title of Web Page. Publisher of Webpage. URL, (date accessed).

DeNoon, Daniel J. 2012. How Much Caffeine Is in Your Energy Drink? WebMD. (accessed August 22, 2016).

Videos (includes DVDs, VHS, Digital formats)

(Author's Lastname Date of Publication)

(Howard 2001)

You may or may not have every piece included in the sample for your note or citation.

Lastname, Firstname.  Original Release Year. Title of Work. Format. Directed/Performed by Firstname Lastname. City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year. 

A beautiful mind. DVD. Directed by Ron Howard. 2001. Universal Pictures, 2001.

You may or may not have every piece included in the sample for your note or citation.

Paintings, sculptures, photographs, etc.

(Artist's Lastname Date of creation)

(Matisse 1937-38)

If the date(s) is unknown and approximate it should start with ca.

(Matisse ca. 1938)

Reference to the specific art work should appear in the text of your paper.

Lastname, Firstname of Artist. Title of Artwork, Date of creation, Name of institution that houses artwork, including location.

If relevant, include medium of artwork.

For images consulted online, include an access date and a URL.

Matisse, Henri. Two Dancers, 1937-38, gouache on paper, Musée national d’art moderne, Paris, accessed January 19, 2017m