Every good researcher understands the value and importance in not only citing sources correctly, but also having a complete and correct reference page. This page is designed to direct you to resources and help available for help with formatting citations, papers and references. Whether you need to use MLA, APA or even AMA style, we have something to help you.
References are given using APA 7th edition.
This table is meant to be a general guide to formatting your reference list and citations. For more complete help we recommend using the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition.
In Text Citations
Indirect Quotes or References to Material
Book references no longer require the publisher location as part of the citation. You need only list the publisher.
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher.
Black, B. P. (2014). Professional nursing: Concepts & challenges. Elsevier.
|More than one author||
Two authors: List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand instead of "and."
Held, J.S. & Posner, D. (1971). 17th and 18th century art: Baroque, painting, sculpture, architecture.H.N. Abrams.
Three to seven authors: List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand.
Kotler, P., Hessekiel, D., & Lee, N. R. (2012). Good works!: Marketing and corporate initiatives that build a better world--and the bottom line. Wiley.
Eight or more authors: List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author's name, use an ellipses in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names.
Smith, B. G., Harrison, F., Hunter, D. T., Goodman, K. T., Williams, T. P., McGillis, A., . . . Cleary, B.
Author, A. A., (Ed.) (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher.
Lane, E., & Shengold, N., (Eds.). (1988). The actor's book of scenes from new plays. Penguin Books.
|Chapter or article from a book||
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Publisher.
Kuh, G. D., Boruff-Jones, P. D., & Mark, A. E.(2007). Engaging students in the first college year: Why academic librarians matter. In L.L. Hardesty (Ed.), The role of the library in the first college year (pp. 17-28). University of South Carolina.
especially those from our research databases
Author. A. A., (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher. https://doi.org/10.xxx
Note: a DOI is not always available. If there is no DOI the citation will look like a print book record.
Bürkle, T., Lehmann, M., Denecke, K., Sariyar, M., Bignens, S., Zetz, E., & Holm, J. (2019). Healthcare of the Future : Bridging the Information Gap. IOS Press.
Colgrove, K. C., & Doherty, C. (2019). Pharmacology Success: Vol. Third edition. F.A. Davis.
Crosby, J. (2014). The Personalism of John Henry Newman. Catholic University of America Press.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article.Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), page range. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy
Peshori, K. S. (2015). Forensic accounting a multidimensional approach to investigating frauds and scams. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach & Studies, 2(3), 26-36.
|More than one author||
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article.Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy
Chen, W., Wu, F., You, Z., Zhang, Z., Guo, Y., & Zhong, L. (2015). Analyzing the differentially expressed genes and pathway cross-talk in aggressive breast cancer. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology Research, 41(1), 132-140. http://10.1111/jog.12495
Other Types of Sources
Author, A. A. (Date of last update). Title of article. UpToDate. Retrieved MM DD, YYYY, from https://uptodate.com/contents/xxx
Simon, G. (2019). Effect of antidepressants on suicide risk in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved Sept. 9, 2020 from https://www-uptodate-com.library.newmanu.edu/contents/effect-of-antidepressants-on-suicide-risk-in-adults.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address
DeNoon, D. J. (2012). How much caffeine is in your energy drink? Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/news/20121025/how-much-caffeine-energy-drink#1.
|Movies and TV Shows||
For films, the director should be listed as the author.
Director, D. D. (Director). (Year of publication). Title of motion picture [film]. Studio.
Howard, R. (Director). (2001). A beautiful mind [film].Universal Pictures.
For TV series, the executive producer should be listed as the author(s). For a TV episode, the writer(s) and director(s) of the episode are listed as authors.
Writer, W. W. (Writer) & Director D. D. (Year of Publication). Title of episode (Season #, Episode #) [TV series episode]. In E. Producer1, & E. Producer2 (Executive Producers), Title of show. Studios.
Interviews or Personal Communication
Personal communications may be private letters, memos, emails, personal interviews, and telephone conversations. According to APA, because they are not considered recoverable data, they are not included in the reference list and should be cited in the reference list.
For your in-text citation include their name, the type of communication and as accurate a date as possible. The other person's name will be listed in the same format used for authors in a reference.
(A. A. LastName, personal communication, Date of communication)
(J. A. Parker, personal communication, October 28, 2018)
For TED Talks you will list the presenter as the author:
Speaker, S. S. (Year, Month). Title of TED Talk [Video]. TED Conferences. URL from https://www.ted.com/xxxx
OR if viewed from YouTube:
TED. (Year, Month Day). Title [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube...xxx
TED. (2011, May 2). Eli Pariser: Beware online "filter bubbles" [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/B8ofWFx525s
Interview or Personal Communication
Recording or Transcript Available
If you have an audio file or written transcript of the personal communication, it should be cited in text and in your reference list. If you do not have all of the information, complete as much as possible.
LastName, A. A. (Date). Interview by B. B. LastName [format of recording]. Title of interview, Place where recording available, Place of Publication.
Jones, B. L. (2016, June 11). Interview by J. K. Lotz [mp3 file]. Library Services at Newman University, Copy in possession of author.
Written transcript (no audio available):
LastName, A. A. (Date) Title of interview with interviewer name/Interviewer: FirstName A. LastName. Occassion of recording, Publisher, Place of Publication.
Jones, B. L. (2016). Library services at Newman University 1933-2006 with Bob L. Jones/Interviewer: Jim K. Lotz. Newman Archives Project, Newman University, Wichita, KS.
Not sure if it's plagiarism? Watch this introductory video. Questions? Please contact a librarian!
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