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Theology--MTS & MA in Theology: Citing Sources

Basic search tips and strategies for graduate theology students

Citing Sources

Every good researcher understands the value and importance in not only citing sources correctly, but also having a complete and correct reference page. This page is designed to direct you to resources and help available for help with formatting citations, papers and references.  Whether you need to use MLA, APA or even AMA style, we have something to help you.

Sample CMS References

References are given using Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition.

Some General Reminders for formatting:

  • Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper.
  • In the text, note numbers are superscripted.
  • Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after any and all punctuation.
  • In the notes themselves, note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable).
  • The first line of a footnote is indented .5” from the left margin.
  • Subsequent lines within a footnote should be formatted flush left.
  • Leave an extra line space between footnotes.
  • Place commentary after documentation when a footnote contains both, separated by a period.
    • In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.
    • Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range. 

Footnotes & Bibliography

Books

Footnote Bibliography
One author

     1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Book (Place of  publication: Publisher, Year  of publication), page number.

     1. Beth Black. Professional Nursing: Concepts & Challenges (St. Louis: Elsevier, 2014), 122.

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Black, Beth. Professional Nursing: Concepts & Challenges. St. Louis: Elsevier, 2014.

More than one author

2-3 Authors:

     1. Firstname Lastname and Firstname Lastname, Title of Book (Place of  publication: Publisher, Year  of publication), page number.

     1. Julius Held and Donald Posner, 17th and 18th Century Art: Baroque, Painting, Sculpture, Architecture (New York: H.N. Abrams, 1971), 22.

4 or more Authors: Include only the first name in the notes.

2-3 Authors:

Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Held, Julius, and Donald Posner. 17th and 18th Century Art: Baroque, Painting, Sculpture, Architecture. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1971.

4 or more Authors: Include all names in the bibliography, except if 8 or more authors, list first seven followed by et al. Only the first author will be listed with first and last names; remaining authors should be listed by initials

Edited works

     1. A.A. Lastname, and A.A. Lastname, eds. Title of Work (Location: Publisher, Year), page #.

     1. E. Lane, and N. Shengold, eds. The Actor's Book of Scenes From New Plays (New York: Penguin Books, 1988), 37.

Lastname, A.A. and A. Lastname, eds. Title of Work. Location: Publisher, Year.

Lane, E., and N. Shengold, eds. The Actor's Book of Scenes From New Plays. New York: Penguin Books, 1988, 37.

Chapter or article from a book

     1. Firstname Lastname, and A.A. Lastname, "Title of Chapter or Article," in Title of Book, ed. Firstname Lastname (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page #.

     1. George D.,Kuh, P.D. Boruff-Jones, and A.E. Mark. "Engaging Students in the First College Year: Why Academic Librarians Matter." in The Role of the Library in the First College Year, ed. Larry Hardesty (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, 2007), 21.

Lastname, Firstname, Firstname Lastname and Firstname Lastname. "Title of Chapter or Article." In Title of Book, edited by Firstname Lastname, page # range. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Kuh, George D., Polly D. Boruff-Jones and AmyE. Mark.  "Engaging Students in the First College Year: Why Academic Librarians Matter." In The Role of the Library in the First College Year, edited by Larry Hardesty, 17-28. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, 2007.

Journal Articles

One author

     1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of the Article,” Title of Journal volume, no. # (Year) : page #.

     1. Kishore S. Peshori, "Forensic Accounting a Multidimensional Approach to Investigating Frauds and Scams," International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach & Studies 2, no. 3 (2015) : 29. 

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of the Article.” Title of Journal volume, no. # (Year) : pages.

Kishore S. Peshori, "Forensic Accounting a Multidimensional Approach to Investigating Frauds and Scams," International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach & Studies 2, no. 3 (2015) 26-36. 

More than one author

The pattern for multiple authors will follow the same format as for books listing multiple authors.

 

Other Types of Sources

Websites

     1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics, publication date and/or access date if available, URL.

     1. Daniel J. DeNoon, "How Much Caffeine Is in Your Energy Drink?," WebMD, October 25, 2012, http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/news/20121025/how-much-caffeine-energy-drink#1.

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Web Page.” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics. Publication date and/or access date if available. URL.

DeNoon, Daniel J. "How Much Caffeine Is in Your Energy Drink?," WebMDOctober 25, 2012. http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/news/20121025/how-much-caffeine-energy-drink#1.

Videos (includes DVDs, VHS, Digital formats)

     1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Work, Format, directed/performed by Firstname Lastname (Original release year; City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year.), Medium.

     1. A beautiful mind, directed by Ron Howard (2001; Universal Pictures, 2001.), DVD.

You may or may not have every piece included in the sample for your note or citation.

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Work. Format. Directed/Performed by Firstname Lastname. Original Release Year. City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year. Medium.

A beautiful mind. Directed by Ron Howard. 2001. Universal Pictures, 2001. DVD.

You may or may not have every piece included in the sample for your note or citation.

 

Academic Resource Center

The Runway Learning Center offers free tutoring services to Newman students seeking help with their studies. Tutors for a wide variety of subjects are available. Peer tutors are Newman students who are currently taking courses, so they have an immediate understanding of the material.

You can schedule a meeting with a peer tutor online. If it's your first time, you will need register for an account.

Email a paper to have it marked for spelling, grammar, word flow, etc. and begin your tutoring conversation: writingcoach@newmanu.edu